Strategies to Teach Compare-Contrast
If someone says "Compare/Contrast," most of us instinctively envision the two overlapping circles of a Venn Diagram. But this graphic organizer only separates information between the two circles; it doesn't really organize the info within the circles. That makes it hard to truly compare information between two items.
A better alternative is the T-Chart. The two items being compared (Items A & B) are still flanking the left and right sides of the organizer. However, this time the middle column is for the features, facets, or aspects of both items you want to study and analyze.
With every added feature of comparison, there is a new row (a new horizontal line added to) the table. This format allows your students to see information side-by-side. They can truly see parallel facts in a physically parallel format. It's so easy! And kids love it!
Utilizing T-Charts after reading
Comparing texts after reading can be done more simply with a T-Chart than the traditional Venn Diagram.
- Text-to-text comparisons can easily highlight the differences between characters or between various story elements.
- This same tool can also show similarities and differences between the text and movie versions of a book.
- Or a T-Chart can compare the accuracy of details from an historical fiction text with those from a primary source document.
- Within the content-areas, students can make a T-Chart of the facts they learned about two different subjects. Check out the eagles v. owls and the endocytosis v. exacytosis science examples.
Look at how easy it is to use the T-Chart Template when the information is organized so simply into rows and columns! (Also available as multi-columned semantic maps.) Notebook versions of both the 2-column T-Chart and the 3+Column T-Chart are available, too.
Pre-writing with T-Charts
If students are preparing to write a comparison-contrast paper, have them start with the middle column of the T-chart, identifying the facets of the subjects they want to study. If students know the categories of information they want to compare, then they have direction and purpose when researching and pre-writing.
A completed T-Chart then serves as the road map for organization. Each row serves as a new paragraph. Each paragraph addresses the same facet for both Item A and Item B. As a writer moves to the next row on the T-Chart, he starts a new paragraph on this new category. It's amazing how much more organized students' papeXL 3D Flapbookrs will be.
Primary teachers and/or special education teachers might try the 3D flapbook before introducing students to the T-Chart. An XL flapbook could be used within a whole-class lesson. By laminating the flapbook, you can use write-on/wipe-off markers numerous times on a variety of topics before releasing students to try one on their own. This offers students a hands-on way of organizing their information.
Adjusting the T-Chart for more than two items
Comparisons don't always come in pairs. You need a graphic organizer that can adjust to accommodate more items. The T-chart can easily support that. Simply slide the feature's column to the far left and add an unlimited number of rows and columns. (This larger table is sometimes referred to as a semantic map.) Now you can compare and contrast multiple types of planets, figurative language, Native American tribes, geometric shapes, seasons, animals, historical events, cultures, governments, etc.
Beyond content-area concepts, this table format allows you to compare more than two texts at a time. For example:
- Compare multiple texts written about the same topic.
- Compare multiple texts written by the same author.
- Compare multiple types of text (e.g., fable v. fairy tale v. myth v. legend, etc.).
With the ability to add rows and columns to the comparison table, you can easily enlarge the table as students continue to learn new information. Check out the tables on figurative language and body systems. (Page 1 reveals the initial table. Page 2 demonstrates how the table can grow with added columns and rows highlighted in yellow.)
|References to the Content-Area CCSS:
RS.6-8.9. RS.9-10.9. RT.6-8.9. RT.9-10.9. RH.9-10.9. Compare and contrast information/findings...
RH.6-8.9 Analyze the relationship between a primary and secondary source on the same topic.
RS.11-12.9. RH.11-12.9. RT.11-12.9. Synthesize/Integrate information from a diverse range of sources....
RH.9-10.6. Compare the point of view of two or more authors for how they treat the same or similar topics...
RH.11-12.6. Evaluate authors' differing points of view on the same historical event or issue...
References to the K-12 ELA Reading Literature and Reading Informational Text CCSS:
RL.K.9. RL.1.9.Compare and contrast the adventures and experiences of characters.
RI.K.9. RI.1.9. Identify basic similarities in and differences between two texts on the same topic.
RL/RI.2.9. RL/RI.3.9. RL/RI.4.9. RL/RI.5.9. RL/RI.6.9. RL/RI.7.9. RL/RI.8.9. RL/RI.9-10.9. RL/RI.11-12.9. Compare and contrast/Analyze how two or more texts treat themes, story elements, ideas, information, concepts...
Rather than waiting until you’ve read the entire printed text, look to integrate book-to-movie comparisons throughout the literature unit. Occasionally, plan to pause in the reading and watch a movie clip of the same excerpt. [Read more.]
|Create simple flap booklets
When studying seasons, weather, holidays, animals, places, or any other informational topics, primary students can utilize a simple flap booklet to organize their writing and work on simple sentences. [Read more.]
|Teach readers to discern text structure
Understanding text structure empowers readers. When students can identify a specific structure, they know how to categorize the details coming at them. Seeing relationships between ideas improves overall comprehension. [Read more.]