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Constructed Responses Require Textual Evidence

Posted on February 23, 2012
Constructed Responses Require Textual Evidence

Constructed Responses Require Textual Evidence

Posted on February 23, 2012

Constructed Responses Require Textual Evidence

Constructed-responses are a specialized type of writing that requires explicit, formulaic instruction. Smekens Education utilizes the Yes MA'AM strategy to teach students the essential facets of the formula.

This simple acronym acts as a frame, ensuring all components are included. Strong responses require a combination of reader inferring (ME) and textual support (AUTHOR). Utilizing the concepts learned during Smekens Education workshops, Break-O-Day Elementary (Whiteland, IN) teacher Sara Ambler crafted the acronym Yes MA'AM. Each letter of MA'AM reminds students of the type of information required (M=Me, A=Author, A=Author, M=Me).

M--Me
The first sentence of the response should reword the question and state a personal opinion or direct response to the question.
 
A--Author
The first "A" prompts the student to look at what the author said and to include a detail from the text to support his answer. Here are some suggested sentence starters:
  • In the text...
  • The text states...
  • According to the passage...
  • One example from the text...
  • The author states...
A--AuthorThe second "A" reminds the student that a constructed response requires multiple supporting details from the author.
  • In the text...
  • The text also states...
  • According to the passage...
  • A second example from the text...
  • The author also states...
M--Me
The response ends with the student (me) explaining or interpreting the significance of the evidence. One of these sentence starters might help:
    • This shows...
    • This demonstrates...
    • I believe...
    • Now I know...
    • This proves...
Additional Resources

Class Rubric

In addition to practicing the strategies listed above, build a class rubric for well-written constructed responses. Criteria might include the following:

Ideas
  • Fully addresses the topic/answers the question.
  • Goes beyond the text to say something new (gives an opinion, draws a conclusion, offers a prediction, makes an inference, etc.).
  • Provides at least two different and specific details from the text to support opinion/conclusion/inference.
Organization
  • Restates the question in the opening sentence of the response (introductory sentence).
  • Concludes the short response with a sentence that interprets the evidence (explains what the details from the text prove).
Conventions
  • Avoids pronouns. (Defines all nouns in this short response to avoid confusion.)
  • Writes a complete, coherent response. (The scorer only reads what is written--not the original question. The response must be complete, giving context.)
  • Uses basic conventions (capitalization, spelling, grammar, etc.).

Katie Opdyke from Madison Elementary School (Lombard, IL) has used the Yes MA'AM strategy in her 5th grade classroom. Check out the tweet she shared. Thanks for sharing, Katie!

Erica Shadley from Upper Sandusky Exempted Village Schools (Upper Sandusky, OH) shared images from her 8th grade classroom. She used the Yes MA'AM strategy with her students and provided students with the Finding Author Evidence and the Constructed-Response handouts to complete after reading Two Girls of Gettysburg.


 

Comments

Any ideas for how to use Yes MA'AM to write summaries of passages?

Tina--Great question! The Yes MAAM Strategy is specifically for Author & Me questions--argumentative & inferential questions. A typical summary question is more explanatory, requiring restating. It doesn't lend itself to the Yes MA'AM frame. Rather, it is a Think & Search question. For a frame that might work, consider visiting one of our other Idea Library articles: Support Summary Writing With Frames.

Posted by Tina Bisbee on September 2, 2016 @ 3:15 pm